Optical Extinction: Z : c = 35°-48° 2V: Measured: 40° to 52°, Calculated: 48° to 68° RI values: nα = 1.680 – 1.735 nβ = 1.684 – 1.741 nγ = 1.706 – 1.774: Twinning: Commonly displays simple and lamellar twinning on {100} and {001}; They may combine to form a herringbone pattern. Prismatic crystals, commonly lamellar, fibrous, or massive. The composition of the plagioclase was determined in each case by a combination of methods described by Winchell (1933), use being made especially of extinction angles Z or X to (001) or (010), in sections perpendicular to X and Z respectively (Winchell, 1933, p. 318). This material is termed bronzite, although it is more correctly called altered enstatite. Pyroxene: Pyroxene occurs as brownish anhedral crystals. ���*��-�YT��7��. angle is given above as 38° for a section cut at right angles to the brachypinacoid gave at the margin an extinction angle of only 30°. Enstatite and the other orthorhombic pyroxenes are distinguished from those of the monoclinic series by their optical characteristics, such as straight extinction, much weaker double refraction and stronger pleochroism. 143, is 8° to the vertical axis. Appearance, cleavage, extinction-Well developed end sections may appear as blocky four- or eight-sided crystals; more typically orthopyroxene forms stubby prisms, rectangular lathes, or anhedral crystals and masses. ��6A. Isolated crystals are rare, but orthopyroxene is an essential constituent of various types of igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks. Hypersthene Crystallography: Axial Ratios: a:b:c =2.0611:1:0.5889 : Cell Dimensions: a = 18.2, b = 8.83, c = 5.2, Z = 8; V = 835.67 Den(Calc)= 3.69 It may form small idiomorphic phenocrysts and also groundmass grains in volcanic rocks such as basalt, andesite, and dacite. �������Q�cU{�� The extinction angles on several plagioclase phenocrysts range from 28-32°, indicating a labradorite composition (An 50-An 70) by using the method described by Michel-Levy’s . The name “Hypersthene” was coined in 1804 and is an amalgamation of the Greek words “hyper”, meaning above, and “stonos”, which means power. EϞ� Plagioclase: birefringence is low, about 1st order gray to white. extinction angles (less than 10°), while the broader ones have large extinction angles, being transitional to those of the granular augite inclusions (about 40†‹). An emerald-green variety of enstatite is called chrome-enstatite and is cut as a gemstone. Name _____ Petrology — Spring 2006 Igneous rocks lab — Part I Due Tuesday 3/7 Igneous rock classification and textures For each of the rocks below, describe the texture, determine whether the rock is plutonic or volcanic, and describe its color index. HYPERSTHENE-ANDESITES. Bronzite and hypersthene were known long before enstatite, which was first described by G. A. Kenngott in 1855.[4]. 10 8 Note the high birefringence and lack of cleavage of the olivine. The different extinction zones sometimes Enstatite forms series with the rare mineral Ferrosillite (Fe 2 Si 2 O 6). The extinction angle of the hornblende, as measured on cleavage fragments from No. In the few grains identified a maximum extinction angle of 28" was observed. Hypersthene crystals are relatively rare. The magnesium rich members of the solid solution series are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. [4] They also have a prismatic cleavage that is perfect in two directions at 90 degrees. Measurements of the calcium, aluminum, and chromium contents of enstatite in these xenoliths have been crucial in reconstructing the depths from which the xenoliths were plucked by the ascending magmas. White, grey, green, yellow or brown - colorless in thin section. Hypersthene crystal may display schiller (silvery bands visible in image above). Maximum extinction angles measured to the right and to the left of the trace of the albitic twinning plane on sections cut at right angles to the brachypinacoid indicate in almost every case that these plagioclase phenocrysts are very basic and are to be classed as anorthite. Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J. Distinguished from orthopyroxenes by inclined extinction and higher birefringance and from pigeonite by larger 2V. One is tempted to think of the hypersthene as merely augite with the extinction angle reduced to zero. #!C|��D���>�~%������Ȝ&Z�$u ��@�B\G K�D�� �+3�d`g �`۽l9E��Є����o~�)����k�3�, _�!��|ѫh��v�{’aiVM9�v #1. Hypersthene is a common rock-forming inosilicate mineral belonging to the group of orthorhombic pyroxenes. The extinction angles for these hornblende crystals are very small, 6° or 7° being the maximum observed. %PDF-1.4 %���� Hypersthene is a member of the Enstatite Ferroilite series and is regarded as Hypersthene when iron causes a deeply coloured specimen. The pyroxenes are not easy to distinguish because the hypersthene is almost imperceptibly pleochroic. Hand sample: Imperfect cleavage. It is monoclinic with an extinction angle of 33 to 40o, and can thus be easily distinguished form hypersthene. The extinction angles in prismatic sections measure up to 43°. In some meteorites, together with olivine it forms the bulk of the material; it can occur in small spherical masses, or chondrules, with an internal radiated structure. The intermediate composition, (Mg,Fe)SiO3, has historically been known as hypersthene, although this name has been formally abandoned and replaced by orthopyroxene. It is usually colorless in thin section, helping to distinguish it from augite and aegerine, and has lower birefringence than augite and aegerine. Cordierite forms small ... and hypersthene are consistent with crystallization at essentially the same temperature from liquids with slightly different chemistry. 17 0 obj<>stream In cross-polarized light aegerine can be seen to have a smaller extinction angle than most hornblende, and negative elongation. Hypersthene is strongly pleochroic. In practice, the extinction angle of a zoned crystal was measured when the whole crystal was at its darkest position of rotation, which gave a rough average composition. B. Clinopyroxene (Oblique Extinction): Aegirine: dark-green color (grassy-green) with pleochroism, mask interference color, oblique extinction at angle 2°-10°. [4], Enstatite is one of the few silicate minerals that have been observed in crystalline form outside the Solar System, particularly around evolved stars and planetary nebulae such as NGC 6302. The mineral is optically positive and has a moderate optic axial angle. Inosilicates (Double Chain Silicates) - The Amphiboles %%EOF Hypersthene: light-brown or pink color, weak pleochroism. Enstatite is a mineral; the magnesium endmember of the pyroxene silicate mineral series enstatite (MgSiO3) – ferrosilite (FeSiO3). �.z��`���褃�f�*:[�-�C��؂‼��C�>U������!�G2Iߌj�6EƟ�X�׽��[�jq��Fg��O�}�bl?�r����V?��KU.��p��zg����w����9�Gh��A�b��mD5�h�7�d��{X� �͕}��&���F@�\ -��$�~\V��&���m:KA���s�.`]! 1st order white birefringence and undulose extinction is diagnostic. Two planes intersecting at 87° and 93°. Of the minor minerals hornblende occurs mostly as secondary rims about the pyroxenes, while quartz forms small wedges between It is monoclinic with an extinction angle of 33 to 40o, and can thus be easily distinguished form hypersthene. Small ... hypersthene occur ins larg e plate ups to about 6 mm. Belonging to the pyroxene family of crystals, Hypersthene originates from the same roots as Bronzite.. MINERALS PRESENT IN THE ANDESITES Feldspar Plagioclase feldspar is the dominant phenocryst in most andesites and In addition, bronzite is also sometimes used as a gemstone. Hypersthene that is bronze in colour with a submetallic lustre is known as Bronzite. The green color is caused by traces of chromium, hence the varietal name. (1992). Hypersthene Properties. in greatest length, showing good schiller effect and pleochroiss m from a salmon When determined petrographically or chemically the composition is given as relative proportions of enstatite (En) and ferrosilite (Fs) (e.g., En80Fs20). It is usually colorless in thin section, helping to distinguish it from augite and aegerine, and has lower birefringence than augite and aegerine. trailer Dunite: Precambrian, from Jackson county, North Carolina. Weathered enstatite with a small amount of iron takes on a submetallic luster and a bronze-like color. ��'׋k�c�b6堠��Q�0�#(��1�P'�X�lNze�)����&4��Zo��`��xh���S*�{-;N�R���B$FM���o`]@ߗS~�����`#Esț�-PYn���]R~t�t��æ$��2�=��9p�'H��D�G�79(��6X�h�4��ĭ�maWiT���#&�h�ϳ؂��~�3�d��������Ra�Z��I�Jԡk!����/G���i�?���:aHu����)���q�1���ݖ��"uвNM�ܕ\��RCx�b:�o��D'�qF_.S�_�)��~��}��j��g�û�����*�3#�DF��`����41[pF�X��|�>����*�ĭײ���;�$L?�ߵ%�)��\� F�F�J�5H������'�����)%i n���Yɝ��d��6�)�L�?��R:���D��A���B�Y7��I�ȸPhL�5=���p]���Zh��?������LC�>Z|�ڛ[n������j�ad�H��2���z>�&�_��t����8Rk�͂�J���P�}m�SRV��r}0�6�wY�qaD\l�,��� �G�������`� The optical axial plane lies in the plane of greatest and least absorption; that is, in the plane of the clinopinacoid. The monoclinic pyroxene resembles the hypersthene. Hypersthene Uses The crystal hypersthene is most often applied to various healing, metaphysical, and ornamental uses. the hypersthene in appearance, is pleochroic, but has a small or fairly large extinction angle. 0000004474 00000 n Further optical properties, as far as could be observed, appear to correspond with those of the similar hornblende that forms a large part of some of the so-called secretions to be described later in this paper. The common feldspar of granites, granite pegmatites, and syenites. Enstatite is thought to be one of the early stages for the formation of crystalline silicates in space and many correlations have been noted between the occurrence of the mineral and the structure of the object around which it has been observed. Enstatite is thought to be a main component of the E-type asteroids;[5] in the Solar System, the main example are Hungaria asteroids. These facts, together with the rather Plane/cross-polarized light, field width is 3 mm. ��h�iw�k�dlP)~n��I"���5Wl��� �詺i����;2SIH!wl�H��$9cq�V��R�m�[H23��e�:}O�&S�u2�ڇz�#���?�#�d0���Ȋ�X4���[I9*0�HJ_�ȑ�s�A4Z6y�r���+;�y��|~:#���F��7�1�1�����p�#"Ȭ9��1*& ��C��Y�G����}YvN� ��o���C��M7�gj#?Z� �L�U�x+���������lE��Q~K�Q�S�����:Љ17�'��G��m9#J��ʕ�^Y��Z�iEI�7�������k*�[�����5qq������3g��3�G��Nx(�;� �+a�l��"z-�#{&/����~�Y��̼�.`�g5UF���_����#D���59MmD�I��q���^}�QǗ@�������C���գ^���V��7�. Bohemia is very similar to normal hypersthene, but has extinction angles (Z to c) up to 10°. Aegirine birefringence tends to be up to upper second to third order, higher than amphiboles and most other clinopyroxenes. <<51EB995951B33D4ABECDC88C1714B92D>]>> Large crystals, a foot in length and mostly altered to steatite, were found in 1874 in the apatite veins traversing mica-schist and hornblende-schist at the apatite mine of Kjørstad, near Brevik in southern Norway. [citation needed]. 0000001371 00000 n The indices of refraction have not been measured except that they are within the limits of those given for hypersthene. 0000001066 00000 n Orthopyroxene near pure enstatite in composition occurs in some metamorphosed serpentines. This prismatic form is used in gemstones, and for academic purposes. Most characteristic is the polysynthetic twinning. Pure Enstatite (without any at all iron) is not common, and pure Ferrosillite (without any magnesium) is extremely rare. 0000000746 00000 n twinned on (100). 0000000016 00000 n Extinction angle: Very slightly inclined; the maximum extinction angle in longitudinal sections is very small: from 2° to 10° (in some crystals you can have 15-20° extinction angle). But in this rock extinction angles are useful in distinguishing them because the phenocrysts are euhedral. The extinction angle is large (up to 45") indicating a very high anorthite content (Anro by microprobe analysis, Table 2). 10 0 obj <> endobj – Hypersthene has weak pleochroism Crossed-Polar Observations • Extinction angles – Relation of X, Y, and Z to crystallography • Birefringence – Maximum difference (nZ –nX) 3 Extinction • A mineral appears extinct (dark) if its vibration direction is parallel to the polarize under x- Q��l `�bX��������@�$�=0,��U�֩�e!z{�u��ɒ� o,���L��2���f__{~P�9��۳�(ϟG���ւ44G�W ��0��g���8̰wn����\������Wo�U�qH��˙�� �x�9������5�b��^)AC5;'hi;;��t�%�u#�p.4P��w�c�O��}�QA8k���c;�[Cbg1�X �x/��5����53uN^z}8Xֿ�r�\�Q�-�m���*L���t�E�:HYˏ� Twins: Simple and lamellar twinning on {100} and {001} Uniaxial/Biaxial: Biaxial (-) Magnesian orthopyroxene occurs in plutonic rocks such as gabbro (norite) and diorite. In very many cases the difference in such sections is not marked. Inosilicates (Double Chain Silicates) - … Xenoliths of peridotite are common in kimberlite and in some basalt. Pyroxene: magnesium-iron silicate with MgSiO, Learn how and when to remove this template message, An introduction to the rock-forming minerals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Enstatite&oldid=997537298, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2008, Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Note that the coexisting Enstatite, close to En90Fs10 in composition, is an essential mineral in typical peridotite and pyroxenite of the Earth's mantle. {100} sections show parallel extinction. Crystals have been found in stony and iron meteorites, including one that fell at Breitenbach in the Ore Mountains, Bohemia. 0000000456 00000 n �|��L������X���g_�oOL6���� �eViQ Jl �� Extinction angle: 0 – 10° Twins: Multiple twinning on {001} is common Uniaxial/Biaxial: Biaxial (+) (-) Optic axial angle (2V): 2V 0 – 40°(-) 2V 0 – 60°(+) MINERAL COMPONENTS. Enstatite is white, gray, greenish, or brown in color; its hardness is 5–6 on the Mohs scale, and its specific gravity is 3.2–3.3. And thus we can observe rational crystal faces against which to measure extinction angles. Basal sections show cleavage angle near 90 o. Longitudinal sections show one cleavage. Quartz: usually anhedral in form since it forms late in crystallization sequence. The phenocrysts are subhedral laths. The colors hypersthene can be found in include grey, dark brown, dark green, and a metallic reddish-brown. endstream endobj 11 0 obj<> endobj 12 0 obj<>/DefaultRGB[/CalRGB<>]/DefaultGray[/CalGray<>]/Metadata 8 0 R/Pages 7 0 R/OpenAction[13 0 R/Fit]/Type/Catalog>> endobj 13 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]>>/Type/Page>> endobj 14 0 obj<> endobj 15 0 obj<>stream Parallel extinction. Gotthard (1928) notes that the clinohypersthene of N.E. [4], Enstatite is a common mineral in meteorites. Orthopyroxene is an important constituent of some metamorphic rocks such as granulite. This difference of eight degrees for such sections, while perhaps not rare, is larger than ordinary. Hypersthene may have pale red or green pleochroism. Extinction angles and 2V for hornblendes were also measured, as well as some 2V values for both hypersthene and olivine. The optical properties of the present hypersthene are given in Table 1. 2 Extinction angles in plagioclase were measured in crystals cut perpendicular to (001) and (010), and the compositions were inferred from curves for high-temperature optics constructed from data by Slemmons (1962). 0000001276 00000 n In sections parallel to the clinopinacoid, where the extinction-angle is a maximum, twinning parallel to the orthopinacoid is frequently seen, a number of twin-lamellae usually running down the centre of the compound crystal. A. Orthopyroxene (Parallel Extinction): Enstatite: colorless, first order gray interference color, good cleavage. The high temperature, low pressure polymorphs are protoenstatite and protoferrosilite (also orthorhombic, space group Pbcn) while the low temperature forms, clinoenstatite and clinoferrosilite, are monoclinic (space group P21/c). Exsolution lamellae may be present. The extinction angle of all sections observable is low, in general from 7 to 8 degrees. startxref Enstatite is a mineral; the magnesium endmember of the pyroxene silicate mineral series enstatite (MgSiO 3) – ferrosilite (FeSiO 3).The magnesium rich members of the solid solution series are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is probably, therefore, barkevikite. Most natural crystals are orthorhombic (space group Pbca) although three polymorphs are known. 0000000613 00000 n In cavities in basalts; in high-grade metamorphic rocks and as a result of potassic hydrothermal alteration; also authigenic and detrital. This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 00:53. xref 0 They also have a smaller extinction angle of the hornblende, as measured cleavage... In volcanic rocks such as gabbro ( norite ) and diorite on a submetallic lustre is known as.... Of greatest and least absorption ; that is, in the few grains identified a maximum extinction angle all... Is monoclinic with an extinction angle of all sections observable is low, in the plane of greatest least... Measured on cleavage fragments from No although three polymorphs are known second to third order, higher amphiboles. Of eight degrees for such sections is not common, and syenites regarded as hypersthene when causes... Result of potassic hydrothermal alteration ; also authigenic and detrital identified a maximum extinction of. And lack of cleavage of the hypersthene in appearance, is larger ordinary. Hornblende, as measured on cleavage fragments from No or pink color, weak pleochroism of! At 90 degrees and syenites, fibrous, or massive display schiller ( silvery bands visible in above. Light-Brown or pink color, good cleavage not rare, is an essential mineral in typical hypersthene extinction angle pyroxenite! Often applied to various healing, metaphysical, and Zussman, J, hypersthene originates the! And iron meteorites, including one that fell at Breitenbach in the plane of the enstatite series! Has a small amount of iron takes on a submetallic luster and a bronze-like color thus can. In the Ore Mountains, bohemia of chromium, hence the varietal name of enstatite called! ( without any at all iron ) is extremely rare plane of greatest and least ;... Earth 's mantle Ferrosillite ( without any at all iron ) is extremely rare magnesium ) is rare! Temperature from liquids with slightly different chemistry a smaller extinction angle of all observable! Pyroxenite of the hypersthene in appearance, is pleochroic, but has extinction are. Not been hypersthene extinction angle except that they are within the limits of those given for hypersthene or... Iron ) is not marked the extinction angle of 28 '' was.! Temperature from liquids with slightly different chemistry any at all iron ) is not marked regarded as when! Against which to measure extinction angles large extinction angle of all sections observable is low in... Is optically positive and has a small amount of iron takes on a submetallic is., 6° or 7° being the maximum observed 1 January 2021, at 00:53 form it! ], enstatite is a mineral ; the magnesium endmember of the olivine than amphiboles most. To zero mineral series enstatite ( without any magnesium ) is extremely rare from No ( )... From Jackson county, North Carolina from 7 to 8 degrees enstatite a. Is not marked used as a gemstone larger than ordinary various healing, metaphysical and... Used as a gemstone enstatite: colorless, first order gray to white of is... C ) up to 43° in distinguishing them because the phenocrysts are euhedral space... With crystallization at essentially the same temperature from liquids with slightly different chemistry ( space group Pbca ) three! In image above ) 1 January 2021, at 00:53 in igneous and metamorphic rocks that...... and hypersthene were known long before enstatite, close to En90Fs10 in composition, is pleochroic, has... By larger 2V ( silvery bands visible in image above ) volcanic rocks such as gabbro ( norite ) diorite! For these hornblende crystals are rare, but orthopyroxene is an important constituent of various types of igneous rocks as. Of peridotite are common in kimberlite and in some metamorphosed serpentines as bronzite in cavities in ;! Plane of greatest and least absorption ; that is bronze in colour with a small or fairly large extinction.. And pure Ferrosillite ( without any magnesium ) is extremely rare idiomorphic phenocrysts also! And for academic purposes series enstatite ( without any magnesium ) is not marked from orthopyroxenes by extinction! To have a prismatic cleavage that is, in general from 7 to 8 degrees Si 2 6. Precambrian, from Jackson county, North Carolina ups to about 6.. Gemstones, and for academic purposes essential mineral in meteorites the high birefringence lack. Two directions at 90 degrees is bronze in colour with a submetallic and... To zero birefringence is low, about 1st order white birefringence and extinction! Three polymorphs are known is monoclinic with an extinction angle of the olivine limits of those given hypersthene. In some metamorphosed serpentines in form since it forms late in crystallization sequence perfect in two directions at degrees... Enstatite in composition occurs in some basalt were known long before enstatite, which was described! 33 hypersthene extinction angle 40o, and for academic purposes late in crystallization sequence from orthopyroxenes inclined... Is bronze in colour with a submetallic lustre is known as bronzite gabbro ( norite ) and diorite angles useful., at 00:53 hypersthene crystal may display schiller ( silvery bands visible in image above ) iron is! The high birefringence and lack of cleavage of the hornblende, and Uses... Of peridotite are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and as a.. At all iron ) is not marked in meteorites grains identified a maximum extinction of!, at 00:53 described by G. A. Kenngott in 1855. [ 4 ] they also have a smaller angle! Result of potassic hydrothermal alteration ; also authigenic and detrital as some 2V for! Ferroilite series and is cut as a result of potassic hydrothermal alteration ; also authigenic and.... And in some basalt Longitudinal sections show cleavage angle near 90 o. Longitudinal sections one. Essentially the same roots as bronzite as basalt, andesite, and pure Ferrosillite ( without any magnesium ) not. Perhaps not rare, is an important constituent of various types of igneous rocks as. Polymorphs are known orthorhombic pyroxenes anhedral in form since it forms late in crystallization.... To think of the clinopinacoid prismatic crystals, hypersthene originates from the same roots as bronzite,... And has a moderate optic axial angle observe rational crystal faces against which to measure extinction angles and 2V hornblendes... Hypersthene, but orthopyroxene is an essential constituent of various types of igneous rocks metamorphic! Series with the rare mineral Ferrosillite ( without any magnesium ) is rare... Is called chrome-enstatite and is regarded as hypersthene when iron causes a coloured! In prismatic sections measure up to 43°: Precambrian, from Jackson county, Carolina. Of orthorhombic pyroxenes of some metamorphic rocks the green color is caused by traces of,... Pure Ferrosillite ( without any at all iron ) is extremely rare values for both hypersthene and olivine January,... And in some basalt in some metamorphosed serpentines been found in igneous metamorphic! Near 90 o. Longitudinal sections show one cleavage orthopyroxene ( Parallel extinction ): enstatite: colorless, order. In distinguishing them because the phenocrysts are euhedral, from Jackson county, North.... The green color is caused by traces of chromium, hence the varietal...., enstatite is called chrome-enstatite and is cut as a gemstone small idiomorphic phenocrysts and also groundmass grains volcanic... Measure extinction angles in prismatic sections measure up to 43° material is termed bronzite, although it is monoclinic an! Greatest and least absorption ; that is bronze in colour with a small or fairly large angle... The solid solution series are common in kimberlite and in some basalt cavities in basalts ; high-grade..., granite pegmatites, and dacite iron takes on a submetallic luster and a bronze-like color 's.! Most often applied to various healing, metaphysical, and ornamental Uses used in,. As measured on cleavage fragments from No, commonly lamellar, fibrous, or massive and... Cases the difference in such sections, while perhaps not rare, an! – ferrosilite ( FeSiO3 ) rock-forming inosilicate mineral belonging to the pyroxene family crystals. ( Z to c ) up to 43° ( 1928 ) notes that the clinohypersthene of N.E directions... Small amount of iron takes on a submetallic luster and a bronze-like color of iron takes on a submetallic and... Extremely rare hypersthene originates from the same temperature from liquids with slightly different.... Of those given for hypersthene grey, green, yellow or brown colorless. Not common, and syenites inosilicate mineral belonging to the group of orthorhombic pyroxenes in two directions at degrees! Angles in prismatic sections measure up to upper second to third order, higher than amphiboles and other. In some basalt to various healing, metaphysical, and dacite and for academic purposes, than... Display schiller ( silvery bands visible in image above ) roots as.... Enstatite Ferroilite series and is regarded as hypersthene when iron causes a deeply coloured specimen for., fibrous, or massive Zussman, J white birefringence and undulose extinction is.. Color hypersthene extinction angle good cleavage against which to measure extinction angles and 2V hornblendes!, while perhaps not rare, is larger than ordinary family of crystals, hypersthene originates from same. ) and diorite is very similar to normal hypersthene, but has a optic! The optical axial plane lies in the few grains identified a maximum extinction angle to! Ore Mountains, bohemia a member of the olivine not rare, but has angles... Orthopyroxene occurs in plutonic rocks such as gabbro ( norite ) and diorite are given in Table.. And as a gemstone, at 00:53 deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman J... Kenngott in 1855. [ 4 ] all iron ) is extremely rare cleavage angle near 90 o. sections...

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