As General Secretary, Nguyễn Phú Trọng heads the party’s Secretariat and is the Secretary of the Central Military Commission in addition to being the de facto head of the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, which currently makes him the most powerful person in Vietnam. Cambodian Civil War broke out between communist Khmer Rouge and GRUNK and pro-American Khmer Republic. In 1975-1976 he served as an Officer in Political Protection Department I at the Ministry of Public Security. In the industrial city of Vinh, May Day demonstrations were organized by ICP activists, which gained critical mass when the families of the semi-peasant workers joined the demonstrations to express their dissatisfaction with the economic circumstances they faced.[10]. – January 2000 to June 2006: Politburo member, Secretary of the Ho Chi Minh City Party Committee. – (VNA). These included Hồ Hữu Tường and Phan Văn Hùm who, protesting a leadership of "Moscow trainees," in July 1930 in Paris had formed an Indochinese Group within the Communist League (Lien Minh Cong San Doan), the French section of the International Left Opposition. Thịnh was elected Vice President of Vietnam on 8 April 2016 after winning 91.09% of votes (450 votes) in the National Assembly, continuing the recent norm of having a woman holding this position. It was in this mood that the 1985 price reform was introduced—market prices were introduced, which led to a sudden increase in inflation. From 1990 to 1996 Quang served as Deputy Secretary of Party Committee, Deputy Director of Staff for Security and Deputy Director General in charge of Security Staff Department, General Department of Security. The path to socialism is a process of constantly consolidating and strengthening socialist factors to make them more dominant and irreversible. [85] Trần Bạch Đằng wrote: The reality of Vietnam after the revolution is different from what I imagined when I joined the party ... Life has shown us that it is much more complicated. He joined the Communist Party in 1969. Trương Tấn Sang (born on 21 January 1949) is the current president of Vietnam and the senior member of the politburo, the executive committee of the ruling Communist Party. [65] It is also responsible for inspecting and supervising the implementation of resolutions and directives on fields regarding the party on economic, social, defence, security and foreign affairs, and it is directly responsible for the coordination of a number of party bodies. [76] The final class barrier was removed in 2006, when party members were allowed to engage in private activities. [58], The General Secretary of the Central Committee is the highest office within the Communist Party,[59] is elected by the Central Committee, and can remain in post for two five-year terms. Nguyễn Phú Trọng (born 14 April 1944) is a Vietnamese politician who is the current General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, in office since 19 January 2011. Hồ Chí Minh said that the basic economic tenets of a people's democratic regime was state ownership of certain segments of production—considered socialist since the state belongs to the people, cooperatives, which were half-socialist in nature but would develop into fully socialist economic entities, and the personal economics of individual handicraft and peasantry, which would later develop into cooperatives, private capitalism and state capitalism, where the state shares capital with capitalists to develop the country further. His nickname is “Tư Sang”. He was promoted to the national party’s number two slot in October 2009. He has held that position since 22 April 2001 and was reappointed in April 2006. For example, in the socialist-oriented market economy, the state-owned sector will be the dominant sector, hence the socialist character of the economy dominates. The party's economic goal was to build a strong and prosperous socialist country in 20 years. [52] It delegates some of its powers to the Secretariat and the Politburo when it is not in session. Tô Huy Rứa was ranked lowest because he received the lowest approval vote of the 10th Central Committee when he stood for election to the Politburo. Ho Chi Minh Communist leader of North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Nguyen Phu Trong, a northerner, was selected secretary general at the Congress. At the June 1997 Central Committee meeting, both Lê Đức Anh and Võ Văn Kiệt confirmed their resignation to the ninth National Assembly, which was dissolved in September 1997. Sang “assumed many of Manh’s normal responsibilities,” Michalak wrote. [32] The third Party Congress, held in Hanoi in 1960, formalized the tasks of constructing socialism in what was by then North Vietnam, or the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), and committed the party to the liberation of South Vietnam. The event, which runs from January 25 to February 2, will see the Communist Party of Vietnam draft a new five-year economic plan and overhaul most of its key leadership positions. [11] Party activists were particularly hard hit in the southern region of Cochinchina, where the previously strong organization was wiped out by arrests and killings. – Native land: Phu An Commune, Ben Cat District, Binh Duong province [82], Unlike in capitalist countries, a socialist-oriented market economy does not "wait for the economy to reach a high level of development before implementing social progress and fairness, nor 'sacrifice' social progress and fairness to the pursuit of mere economic growth". [10] General Secretary Tran Phu and a number of Central Committee members were arrested and killed. Promoted to Lt. General in April 2007, from 2006 through 2011, Quang was a member of the Standing Central Police Party Committee, Deputy Minister of Public Security. PlanetRulers - Current Heads of State & Dictators. – 1974 to August 1979: Deputy Director of General Affairs Department of the Youth Union , Deputy Chief of the Youth Union Central Committee’s Board for Voluntary Young People. It was the most uncompromising fighting force against the Japanese occupation, and gained popular recognition and legitimacy in an environment that would become a political vacuum. In response to French influence and manipulation which tried to destroy unity within Vietminh, the ICP was officially dissolved and downgraded into the Institute for studying Marxism in Indochina (Hội Nghiên cứu Chủ nghĩa Marx tại Đông Dương) as a gesture to unite all nationalist and non-communist factors to fight against French and pro-French forces. Proponents of the socialist-oriented market economy claim that the system is neither socialist nor capitalist, but that it is “socialist-oriented.” The Communist Party rejects the view that a market economy has to be capitalist. Yet those principles were not interpreted precisely correctly. From 1987 to 1990 he was Chief of Staff, Head of Business, political Protection Department II, Ministry of the Interior. Previously he served as Minister of Public Security from 2011 to 2016. The most recent fighting had begun in December 1974, when the North Vietnamese had launched a major attack against the lightly defended province of Phuoc Long, located due north of Saigon along the Cambodian border, overrunning the provincial capital at Phuoc Binh on January 6, 197… The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. [70] Marxism–Leninism was introduced to Vietnam in the 1920s and 1930s, and Vietnamese culture has been led under the banners of patriotism and Marxism–Leninism. [28] After the successful establishment of an independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi, Vietnam was taken over by Chinese nationalist forces in the north and the French-British joint forces in the south. At the second Party Congress it was decided that the Communist Party would be split into three; one party for each of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. [60] The Politburo can be overruled by the Central Committee, as happened in 2001 when the Politburo voted in favour of retaining Lê Khả Phiêu as General Secretary; the Central Committee overturned the Politburo's decision, dismissed Lê from politics, and forced the Politburo to elect a new General Secretary after the ninth National Congress. [11], At the beginning of the war, the Indochinese Communist Party instructed its members to go into hiding in the countryside. [8] A third Vietnamese communist group emerged around this time in the Annam (central) region, called themselves the Communist League of Indochina (Đông Dương Cộng sản Liên Đoàn), which was not originated from the Youth League. At the Congress of the 12th National Party was elected to the Party Central Committee, the Central Government is elected to the Politburo. It is the only organ within the party which can sentence or condemn party members. [55] The number of Central Committee members with a provincial background increased from 15.6 percent in 1982 to 41 percent in 2001. Mr Trong, Vietnam’s most powerful leader in decades, is barred by the party’s charter from serving a third term and suffered a bout of illness last year. As Ho Chi Minh declined physically and suffered failing health, Lê Duẩn assumed much of the executive power within North Vietnam. The highest institution of CPV is the party's National Congress which elects the Central Committee. He was taken prisoner by the South Vietnamese government in 1971 and released under the Paris Peace Treaty in 1973. A delegation from the CPV participated in the 22nd Meeting of Foro de São Paulo in El Salvador in June 2016. Beginning in 1978 he was an Officer II in the Political Protection Department at the Ministry of Public Security. [49] Nông Đức Mạnh held the top spot until the 11th National Congress (held in 2011) and was succeeded by Nguyễn Phú Trọng. -May 2002 to June 2006: deputy to the 11th National Assembly. [80] The political platform of the second Party Congress held in 1951 stated: "The people's democratic revolution is neither an old-type capitalist democratic revolution nor socialist revolution, it is a new-type capitalist democratic revolution which will evolve into socialist revolution without experiencing a revolutionary civil war. [23][24] Asked a year later in Paris about the fate of Tạ Thu Thâu's and his comrades Ho Chi Minh is recorded by Daniel Guerin as replying "All those who do not follow the line which I have laid down will be broken.” [25]. Although nominally exists alongside the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, it maintains a unitary government and has centralised control over the state, military and media. After a party congress, the Central Committee elects the Politburo and Secretariat and it appoints the First Secretary, the highest party office. Together with China, Laos, Cuba and, to a large extent, North Korea, Vietnam is the remaining communist countries today. After an uprising in Cochinchina in 1940, most of the Central Committee, including Nguyen Van Cu (General Secretary) and Hà Huy Tập, were arrested and killed, and Lê Hồng Phong was deported to Côn Đảo and later died. He was promoted to 10th position in the national party at a congress in April 2001. It functions as a basis for the most basic theoretical beliefs upheld by the party. The movement then declared a new, independent provisional Vietnamese government. The party was restored in 1935, and Lê Hồng Phong was elected its General Secretary. To build a socialist society, communists have to imagine, outline and study society. [9] At a later conference under request of the Third Comintern, the party changed its name to the Indochinese Communist Party (Đảng Cộng sản Đông Dương), often abbreviated as ICP. Nguyễn Phú Trọng was also Chairman of the National Assembly from 2006 to 2011. The party believes that socialism leads to human liberation from every oppressive situation, exploitation and injustice. Following is his brief biography: The United States justified the conflict as a means to stop the spread of communism during the Cold War. Lai Quoc Khanh, a journalist in the theoretical Communist Review wrote: "The people's democratic regime is an objective necessity in the development course of Vietnamese society". [78] In the face of de-emphasising the role of Marxism–Leninism, the party has acquired a broader ideology, laying more emphasis on nationalism, developmentalism and becoming the protector of tradition.[79]. The Secretariat supervises the preparation for issues raised at Politburo meetings. [87] It exchanges views with such parties on theoretical and practical issues regarding socialist construction, party building and current problems. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tr%E1%BA%A7n_%C4%90%E1%BA%A1i_Quang. The South Vietnamese forces had collapsed under the rapid advancement of the North Vietnamese. [60] The General Secretary holds the post of Secretary of the Central Military Commission, the party's highest military affairs organ. [26] Although he convinced Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate, his government was not recognized by any country. [62] According to David Koh, the Politburo ranking from the first plenum of the 10th Central Committee onwards, is based upon the number of approval votes by the Central Committee. – December 1991 to December 1996: Member of the Party Central Committee, Secretary of the Party Committee of Song Be province, elected to the Communist Party Central Committee at the eighth National Party Congress, and deputy to the ninth National Assembly. [75] Some claim that Hồ Chí Minh Thought is used as a veil for a party leadership that has stopped believing in communism, but others rule this out on the basis that Hồ Chí Minh was an avid supporter of Lenin and the dictatorship of the proletariat. On 23 October 2018, Nguyễn Phú Trọng was elected as the 9th President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in a meeting of the sixth session of the National Assembly. When the Central Committee is not in session, the Politburo implements the policies of the National Congress.[50]. Dien Bien Phu. However, in an official note it said that the "Vietnamese party reserves the right to supervise the activities of its brother parties in Cambodia and Laos. Vietminh. [...] Capitalism will certainly be replaced by socialism, because that is the law of human history, which no one can deny. [80] While Hồ Chí Minh supported the position that Vietnam had entered the stage of transition to socialism in 1954, he held the belief that Vietnam was still "a democratic regime in which people are the masters" and not socialist. [82] Policies are enacted for the sole purpose of improving the people's standard of living.[82]. Technically, Vietnam until this day is still a communist country having the one-party rule, that is the Communist Party of Vietnam, under Marxist-Leninist governance. [88], The CPV currently maintains relations with over 100 communist and workers' parties. – January 1997 to December 1997: Member of the Party Central Committee, Deputy Secretary of the Ho Chi Minh City Party Committee. This position is merely ceremonial compared to that of senior politburo member, which Sang already holds. [82] Nguyễn Phú Trọng said: The state economy plays a key role; the collective economy is constantly consolidated and developed; the private economy is one of the driving forces of the collective economy; multiple ownership, especially joint-stock enterprises, is encouraged; the state and collective economies provide a firm foundation for the national economy. The Communist Party traces its lineage back to 1925, when Hồ Chí Minh established the Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League (Hội Việt Nam Cách mạng Thanh niên), commonly referred to as Youth League (Hội Thanh niên). These included the Trotskyists. Ambassador Michael Michalak. Mạnh’s official biography says that he was the son of peasants of the Tay ethnic group and that he was born on 11 September 1940 in Cuong Loi, Na Ri District, Bac Kan province. Rejecting the Comintern's "Kuomintang" line, Thâu insisted that "independence is inseparable from proletarian revolution.". [69] According to the Constitution, Vietnam is in a period of transition to socialism. The logic is that difference in the ownership of productions lead to different modes of production. Trường Chinh's 1973 biography of Hồ emphasized his revolutionary policies. Nông Đức Mạnh (born on 11 September 1940 (age 66) in Cuong Loi, Na Ri District, Bac Kan province, Vietnam, Asia) is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV). [64], The Secretariat is headed by the General Secretary and decisions within it are made through collective decision-making. 8 on the leadership list. Socialism is the gradual abolition of private property and capitalism and changes to the means of production. Relations with other communist and workers parties are very important, and are built on "solidarity, friendship, mutual support in the struggle for socialism in the spirit of Marxism-Leninism and pure internationalism of the working class". The war lasted from 1960 to 1975 and spilled over into Laos and Cambodia. At the 6th party plenum in March 1989, he was elevated to full central committee member. However, Vietnam, like other communist countries, has to adopt some capitalist principles to survive. – January 1988 to September 1989: Complementarily elected to the Party Committee of southern Song Be province. Thịnh is the first woman in Vietnamese history to become President or Acting President of Vietnam. [84] According to Marxism–Leninism, socialism is the second-to-last stage of socio-economic development before pure communism. – July 1981 to December 1987: Head of the Youth Union Central Committee’s Board for Voluntary Young People, Secretary of the Party Committee of the Youth Union Central Committee in HCM City, member of the Youth Union Central Committee’s Executive Board, Secretary of the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union Central Committee, Deputy President and General Secretary of the Viet Nam Youth Union. He began his career as a forestry worker and joined the revolution in 1958. Both are southerners, but traditionally the party’s top slot has gone to a northerner. Promoted to Major General in 2003; he was appointed associate professor in 2003 and he was appointed professor in 2009. His authority soon “eclipsed” that of General Secretary Nong Duc Manh, the only person nominally above Sang in the party hierarchy, according to a leaked diplomatic cable by U.S. There has never been a scientific and revolutionary theory like Marxism–Leninism. [7] The other faction of Youth League, based in the Cochinchina (southern) region of the country, held a conference in Saigon and declared themselves the Communist Party of Annam (An Nam Cộng sản Đảng) in late 1929. Success will depend on correct policies, political spirit, leadership capacity, and the fighting strength of the Party".[82]. Vietnamese top leader extends greetings to French Communist Party Thursday, December 24, 2020 | 19:23:00 (VOVWORLD) - Party General Secretary and State President Nguyen Phu Trong sent a congratulatory message to the National Council of the French Communist Party on its 100 th founding anniversary and the 100 th anniversary of the Tours Congress. [1] The Youth League sought to make use of patriotism in an effort to end the colonial occupation of the country by France. The two ideologies serve as guidance for the activities of the party and state. [82] According to Nguyễn Phú Trọng, "[i]t is a new type of market economy in the history of the market economy’s development. After decisions taken at the National Congress are ratified, the congress is dissolved. The Secretariat is elected and the membership size is decided by the Central Committee immediately after the National Congress. [68] It functions as an advisory body to the Central Committee, the Politburo and the Secretariat on conceiving and developing party theory in line with Marxism. From 1963 to 1965, Mạnh was the deputy chief of the Bach Thong wood exploiting team. The supremacy of the Communist Party is guaranteed by Article 4 of the national constitution. Trương Tấn Sang (born on 21 January 1949) is the current president of Vietnam and the senior member of the politburo, the executive committee of the ruling Communist Party. [73], Since the Republic was founded, the key ideology has been Marxism–Leninism, but since the introduction of a mixed economy in the late 1980s and 1990s, it has lost its monopolistic ideological and moral legitimacy. [12] A new party leadership, which included Trường Chinh, Phạm Văn Đồng, and Võ Nguyên Giáp emerged. Tran Quoc Vuong, second from right, is pictured along with other members of the Communist Party of Vietnam's Politburo at the closing ceremony of the National Congress in … Following the August Revolution (1945) organized by the Viet Minh, Hồ Chí Minh became Chairman of the Provisional Government (Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam) and issued a Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [92] It has been argued that the socialist-oriented market economy is a re-capitalized system which allows massive capitalist markets, bourgeoisie and foreign investments while its expanding economic inequality social unrest. The Communist Party believes that socialism is superior to other ideologies and state systems. The ICP was ostensibly dissolved, but its core was still functioning. However, it can only implement decisions based upon the policies which have been approved in advance by either the Central Committee or the party's National Congress. From 1974 to 1976, Mạnh studied at the Nguyen Ai Qouc High-Level Party School. From 1996 to 2000, he was a Member of the Standing Committee of the Party Committee of General Security, Party Secretary, Director of Staff for Security. The CPV sent delegations to the 8th Congress of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation in 2008, the 5th Congress of the Party of Italian Communists in 2008, the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of India in 2008, the 9th Communist Party of India (Marxist) in 2008, the 18th Congress of Communist Party of Greece in 2009, the 9th Congress of the Communist Party of Denmark in 2009, the 18th Congress of the Spanish Communist Party in 2009, the 8th Congress of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist) in 2009, the 12th Congress of the Communist Party of Brazil in 2009 and that of the Peruvian Communist Party in 2010. [56], The members of the Politburo are elected and given a ranking by the Central Committee immediately after a National Party Congress. He was party secretary for Ho Chi Minh City, the top position in the city government, from 1996 to 2000. Nguyen Minh Triet was re-elected State President of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam at the on-going first session of the 12th National Assembly on July 24. [54] The party and state bureaucracy opposed Linh's reform initiatives; because of this, Linh tried to win the support of provincial leaders, causing the powers of the provincial chapters of the CPV to increase in the 1990s. [33] In the south, the United States of America established a pro-American Republic of Vietnam (RVN), commonly known as South Vietnam, in 1955. [72] Hồ Chí Minh Thought and Marxism–Leninism became the official ideologies of the CPV and the state in 1991. [63] The 11th Politburo was elected by the Central Committee after the 11th National Congress and consists of 16 members. According to this method, the process of formulating the people's democratic regime in reality was considered the process of wiping out comprehensively fundamental features of colonial-feudal regime. Nông Đức Mạnh succeeded Lê Khả Phiêu in 2001 as general secretary. Despite the group's small size, it exerted an influence in a turbulent Vietnamese social climate. The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is considered an "immortal work". He was admitted to the CPV on 5 July 1963 and became an official member of the CPV on 10 July 1964. Tran Dai Quang (born 12 October 1956) is the President of Vietnam, in office since 2 April 2016. He currently serves as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, in office since January 2011. leader of Communist North Vietnam. – Admitted to the Communist Party of Viet Nam on March 30, 1965. Vietnam - Vietnam - The two Vietnams (1954–65): The agreements concluded in Geneva between April and July 1954 (collectively called the Geneva Accords) were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives and provided for a cease-fire and temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17 °N (popularly called the 17th parallel). [56] The Central Committee did this because most of its members had a provincial background, or were working in the provinces. In Congress 11th National Party was elected to the Party Central Committee, the Central Government is elected to the Political Bureau. In practice, the Vietminh became the leader of struggle for independence of Vietnam. [41] Lê Duẩn died on 10 July 1986, a few months before the sixth Party Congress. -June 2006: elected State President of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam at the ninth session of the 11th National Assembly. He has a bachelor of law. french outpost captured by the vietminh. [4] This led to a national breakdown within the organization,[5] which led indirectly to a split within Youth League. [80] To reach the socialist stage of development, the development of the state sector was of utmost importance—the lack of which according to Hồ Chí Minh would lead to failure. [48] At the fourth Central Committee plenum of the eighth Party Congress, Lê Khả Phiêu was elected General Secretary and Đỗ Mười, Lê Đức Anh and Võ Văn Kiệt officially resigned from politics and were elected Advisory Council of the Central Committee. [42] A Politburo meeting held between 25 and 30 August 1986, paved the way for more radical reforms; the new reform movement was led by Trường Chinh. Delegates decide the direction of the party and the Government at the National Congress. It is the duty of the Politburo to ensure that resolutions of the Party Congress and the Central Committee are implemented nationally. In South Vietnam there was the suppression of various sects and their independent armies (line 219), rebellions of minorities (lines 222 to 223), the pre-Vietnam War communist inspired guerrilla war directed by North Vietnam from 1954 through 1959 (lines 227 and 228), and the incursion into Cambodia (line 239). At the fourth Party Congress in 1976, the Workers Party of Vietnam was merged with the People's Revolutionary Party of South Vietnam into the Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), commonly abbreviated as CPV. People 's party the forces generated by modern advanced production political and social objectives—national and..., was selected Secretary General at the same time, he had to Prime. Human liberation from every oppressive situation, exploitation and injustice founding and ruling Communist party of the 's... That if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall Communist... An `` immortal work '' Michalak wrote against its resolution, Sang was promoted to position! Decision of the Politburo are made through collective decision-making in Central planning, improve economic relations... Karl Marx and other founders, and Võ Nguyên Giáp emerged superior more. Highest institution of CPV is organized on the basis of democratic centralism, a northerner of! Decided by the South, was selected Secretary General at the first Secretary, the party has emphasized the of! The leadership of Nguyễn Văn Linh took power Hồng Phong was elected its General Secretary and decisions within Central... Vietnamese history to become an industrialized country by 2020 capitalist development at this time plenum in March 1989, became! Prime Minister ’ s number one leader following the August 1945 revolution..... Living. [ 45 ] the United States justified the conflict as means..., Communist forces move into Saigon, where they meet only sporadic resistance announced he. Used by the party ranks, Mạnh served as an alternate member of the Communist party the... Appoints the first woman in Vietnamese history to become President or Acting President of Vietnam ( )! The Prime Minister ’ s top position in the aftermath of the Interior consider the distribution of land to peasants. July 1986, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin Indochina... In 1978 he was ranked as the new cabinet Central Inspection commission appointed! Implements the decisions of the 12th Politburo comprises 19 members taught Russian language at Hanoi foreign Languages College.. Party which can sentence or condemn party members, including many of Manh ’ s two! Of CPV is the supreme organ on party affairs Minh Thought and Marxism–Leninism became the deputy Secretary of the Vietnamese... Nguyên Giáp emerged became state President following a vote of the 13th National Assembly from to... 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The first woman in Vietnamese history to become an industrialized country by 2020 Vietnam during the Vietnam War ( )! Hanoi foreign Languages College 1965-1966, deputy Minister of Public Security highest institution of CPV is the remaining Communist,...

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